National Park Guides

Wind Cave National Park: Uncovering Hidden Wonders and Fascinating Depths

POSTED ON July 15, 2022 BY Ralph S.

Introduction to Wind Cave National Park

Nestled in the scenic Black Hills of South Dakota, Wind Cave National Park is a hidden gem waiting to be explored. It is a place where visitors can witness nature’s marvels, immerse themselves in breathtaking landscapes, and experience the mysteries of an underground world.

Wind Cave is known for its complex underground caves, which are among the longest and most intricate in the world. It features unique limestones that are rare to find elsewhere. Visitors can take guided tours of the cave, walk the nature trails, and spot diverse wildlife, including bison, prairie dogs, pronghorns, and elk.

Beyond the cave, the park offers a plethora of outdoor activities, such as hiking, camping, and horseback riding. Whether you are seeking to reconnect with nature or marvel at its wonders, Wind Cave National Park is a must-visit destination.

Wind Cave National Park Entrance Sign

History of Wind Cave National Park

Wind Cave National Park has a rich and fascinating history that dates back to over 300 million years ago when limestone formations began to form.

In 1881, the cave was discovered by two brothers, Tom, and Jesse Bingham, while on a hunting expedition. The wind blew in such force and they heard a whistling sound coming from a hole in the ground, and upon investigating, they found a natural entrance to Wind Cave.

Moments afterward, the brothers named it “Wind Cave,” and they opened it up to tourists, charging 50 cents per person for a guided cave tour.

The cave’s unique features are a result of dissolution and water erosion, which over time formed complex underground passageways and chambers. Native American tribes, including the Lakota and Cheyenne, have long known of the cave’s existence and considered it a sacred place.

The local Native American tribes in the area were aware of the park’s existence, though they never ventured into it due to their beliefs that it was a sacred place. Over time, more people began to explore Wind Cave, and so did concerns about its preservation, prompting the federal government to intervene.

In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt signed a bill that officially established Wind Cave National Park, making it the seventh national park and the first cave to be designated a national park anywhere.

The local population played a crucial role in advocating for the protection of Wind Cave. The Lakota people recognized the cave’s importance and were instrumental in raising awareness of its value as a sacred site.

The significance of Wind Cave National Park goes far beyond its beauty and intricate system. It is home to a myriad of wildlife species, including bison, elk, mule deer, and prairie dogs. It is also a habitat for some of the world’s rarest species, like the endangered black-footed ferret.

Today, Wind Cave National Park is a testament to the efforts of those who recognized its unique value.

Wind Cave is the seventh longest cave in the world with 162 miles (260 km) of explored cave passageways. It is also among the most complex caves in the world.

Key Facts about Wind Cave National Park

Size: 33,847 acres (137.01 km²)

Number of Visitors: About 647,652 (2021)

Established: January 9, 1903

Number of Hiking Trails: 32 trails

Total Length of hiking Trails: 30 miles (48 km)

Number of Caves: 95 explored

Length of Mapped Passageways: 162 miles (260 km)

Highest Point: Rankin Ridge at 5,013 feet (1,527 m) above sea level

Lowest Point: Cave’s natural entrance at 3,220 feet (982 m) above sea level

Other interesting facts about Wind Cave National Park:

  • Wind Cave National Park is home to the world’s largest concentration of rare boxwork formations. A rare honeycomb-shaped calcite and aragonite deposits that form in caves. It is estimated that 90% of the world’s boxwork can be found within the park.
  • Wind Cave is also known for its “frostwork” formations, which are delicate, needle-like structures that resemble intricate frost patterns. These formations are found in only a few complex caves around the world.
  • The park’s bison herd is one of the largest in the National Park System, with over 400 animals.
  • Wind Cave was the first cave to be designated a national park anywhere in the world.
  • It was the first national park to be established in South Dakota.
  • Wind Cave consists of over 162 miles (260 km) of explored passages, making it one of the longest and most complex cave systems in the world.
  • Wind Cave Park is home to one of the largest remaining mixed-grass prairie ecosystems in the world, with over 30,000 acres of intact grasslands and underground prairie dog towns.
  • Wind Cave National Park is home to the endangered black-footed ferret, which is one of the rarest mammals in North America.
  • It is home to two of the oldest trees in North America. The Juniper and Sequoia, are estimated to be 2,000-3,000 years old!
  • Dimly lit caves at the park have been used as a sacred place by Native Americans for centuries.

Climate and Weather

Wind Cave Park experiences a semi-arid climate influenced by its high elevation. Visitors can expect different weather conditions depending on the time of year.

Daytime in Wind Cave National Park

Spring (March-May)                 

Spring in the park can be quite variable, with warm days and cool nights. Average high temperatures range from the mid 40s to mid 60s°F (7-18°C), with average low temperatures in the 20s to 30s°F (-6°C to -1°C).

However, temperatures can still drop below freezing at night, especially at higher elevations.

Spring is also a time when weather conditions can be unpredictable, with occasional snow and rain showers. Visitors should check the park’s website or contact a ranger station for up-to-date weather information and advisories.

Summer (June-August)

Summer temperatures can vary depending on the time of day and the elevation of the area being visited. Average high temperatures range from the mid 70s to mid 80s°F (24-29°C), with average low temperatures in the 50s°F (10-15°C).

However, temperatures can sometimes reach into the 90s°F (32°C) during the hottest parts of the day, especially in lower elevation areas. So, visitors should also be prepared for sudden temperature drops and high winds, which can occur in the evenings.

Fall (September-November)

Fall can be quite variable, with warm days and cool nights. Average high temperatures range from the mid 50s to mid 60s°F (12-18°C), with average low temperatures in the 30s°F (-1°C to 3°C).

However, temperatures can drop quickly in the evening, especially at higher elevations, with occasional snowstorms as early as September.

Check the park’s website or contact a ranger station for up-to-date weather information and advisories.

Winter (December-February)

Winter can be cold, with occasional snow and ice storms. Average high temperatures range from the mid 30s to mid 40s°F (1-7°C), with average low temperatures in the teens and single digits (-7°C to -12°C).

Temperatures can drop below freezing, and the park receives a significant amount of precipitation in the form of snow during the winter months.

Snow can make hiking and driving conditions challenging, and It’s important to be aware of the potential for hypothermia and frostbite. Also, some roads and trails remain closed during the winter months, and it’s important to check the park’s website or contact a ranger station before visiting.

Unique Weather Aspect

One unique aspect of the park’s weather is the occurrence of “cave breezes,” which are caused by differences in air pressure between the cave and the outside world.

During the summer months, warm air enters the cool tunnels, creating a breeze that can be felt at the natural entrance. In the winter, the opposite happens, with cold air from the cave creating a current that flows outwards.

Best Time to Visit Wind Cave National Park

The best time to visit Wind Cave National Park depends on what you want to experience and what activities you want to participate in.

Each season offers unique experiences and weather conditions.

Spring brings wildflowers and warmer temperatures, making it an ideal time for hiking and wildlife viewing. However, visitors should be prepared for road and trail closures due to snow and ice like in most other national parks.

Summer is the peak season for tourism in Wind Cave National Park. The warm temperatures and longer days make it an ideal time for hiking, camping, and viewing wildlife. However, this also means larger crowds and busier trails, so visitors should plan accordingly and book accommodations and guided tours in advance.

Fall is a quieter time to visit the park, with cooler temperatures and changing colors of the surrounding forests. Visitors can enjoy seeing wildlife as many species prepare for winter hibernation.

Unfortunately, some facilities and services may be limited or closed during this season, and visitors should check ahead before planning their visit.

Winter offers a unique experience in Wind Cave National Park, with the possibility of snow. Visitors can enjoy cross-country skiing and snowshoeing but should be prepared for colder temperatures and potential road & trail closures during the off-season. Here is a guide to hiking in winter.

A Boxwork geological formation of rocks in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota

Recommended Gear

When visiting Wind Cave National Park, it’s important to bring appropriate gear to guarantee a safe and enjoyable trip.


Here are some recommended items to pack for a summer visit:

  • Comfortable, breathable clothing: Wear lightweight, breathable clothing that will keep you cool and comfortable while hiking or exploring the park.
  • Sun protection: The sun can be intense, so bring sunscreen, sunglasses, and a hat to protect your skin and eyes.
  • Sturdy hiking shoes: Comfortable, sturdy shoes with good traction are essential for hiking in rugged terrain. Closed-toe shoes will protect your feet from rocks and other hazards.
  • Plenty of water: It’s important to stay hydrated in the summer heat, so carry refillable water bottles to avoid dehydration.
  • Insect repellent: Mosquitoes and other biting insects can be a nuisance in summer, so bring insect repellent to protect yourself.
  • Daypack: A lightweight daypack is useful for carrying water, snacks, sunscreen, and other essentials while exploring the park.
  • Rain gear: Summer afternoon thunderstorms are common in the park, so bring rain gear such as a waterproof jacket or poncho.
  • Optional gear: Other optional items include a camera, binoculars, and a map.


Spring and fall can be unpredictable, with changing temperatures and weather conditions. Here are some recommended items to bring:

  • Layers of clothing: A lightweight jacket or sweater, long-sleeved shirts, and pants are recommended. A fleece or insulated jacket, and a waterproof shell, can help you adjust to changing weather conditions in spring.
  • Sturdy hiking shoes: The park’s trails can be rugged, muddy, and wet in spring. So, comfortable hiking shoes with good traction are important to avoid slips and falls. Closed-toe waterproof shoes will also protect your feet from rocks and other hazards.
  • Rain gear: Spring and fall can bring rain and sudden changes in temperature, so bring waterproof rain gear such as a jacket or poncho to stay dry and comfortable.
  • Hat and gloves: Fall temperatures can be chilly, especially in the morning and evening. A hat and gloves can help keep you warm and comfortable while exploring the park.
  • Sun protection: As the weather warms up in spring, the sun can become stronger. Bring sunscreen, a hat, and sunglasses to protect yourself from the sun’s harmful rays.
  • Daypack: A lightweight daypack is useful for carrying water, snacks, rain gear, and other essentials while exploring the park.
  • Insect repellent: Mosquitoes and other biting insects can still be active in spring and fall, so bring insect repellent to protect yourself from bites and discomfort.
  • Binoculars: Fall is a great time to view wildlife, so bring a pair of binoculars to get a closer look at the animals.
  • Optional gear: Other optional items to consider bringing include a camera, a map or guidebook, and a flashlight for nighttime activities.


Winter can be cold and snowy. Here are some recommended items to bring for a winter visit:

  • Warm clothing: Bring a warm winter coat, insulated pants, gloves or mittens, and warm boots with good traction.
  • Snowshoes or traction devices: If there is snow on the ground, snowshoes or other traction devices such as crampons or ice cleats can help you navigate the park’s trails safely.
  • Daypack: A lightweight daypack is useful for carrying water, snacks, extra layers of clothing, and other essentials while exploring.
  • Hand warmers: Hand warmers can provide extra warmth and comfort in cold temperatures.
  • Headlamp or flashlight: Winter days are short. So, a headlamp or flashlight can help you navigate in dimly lit caves.
  • Food and water: Carry plenty of water and high-energy snacks such as trail mix, energy bars, or jerky.
  • First aid kit: A basic first aid kit can help you treat minor injuries.
  • Optional gear: Other optional items to consider bringing include a camera, binoculars for wildlife viewing, and a map or guidebook.

For a detailed guide on the correct hiking gear in winter, check out our winter hiking guide.

What to Do in Wind Cave National Park

Wind Cave National Park offers visitors a wide variety of activities to enjoy. From exploring underground complex caves with popular tour packages, such as the natural entrance tour & wild cave tour to hiking scenic trails and observing wildlife, you will not miss a fun activity.

Hiking and Backpacking

With over 30 miles (48 km) of scenic trails to explore, Wind Cave National Park is a great destination for hiking and backpacking enthusiasts. There are also two pet-friendly trails worth checking out.

Visitors can also enjoy several scenic viewpoints throughout the park, such as the Prairie Vista Overlook, which offers stunning views of the park’s expansive prairies, and the Bison Flats Overlook, which provides a glimpse of the park’s resident bison herd.

For those looking for a more immersive wilderness experience, backcountry camping is available in designated areas within the park. Several trails, including the Highland Creek Trail and the Cold Brook Canyon Trail lead to a few historic sites.

But it’s important to remember that hiking and backpacking in Wind Cave National Park can be challenging due to the park’s rugged terrain and unpredictable weather conditions.

Also, you should bring a park map, and check trail conditions and weather forecasts before embarking on a hike or backpacking trip.


Best hikes in Wind Cave National Park

  • Rankin Ridge Trail: This moderate 1-mile (1.6 km) round-trip hike offers stunning panoramic views of the dense forest and meadows as it heads up to the summit. It takes about 1-2 hours to complete, and you can enjoy sweeping views of the historic fire tower, prairies, and canyons below.
  • Cold Brook Canyon Trail: This moderate 1.4-mile (2.2 km) round-trip hike takes visitors through the park’s stunning canyon landscape, offering views of cascading waterfalls and unique rocks. It takes about 2 hours to complete and can be challenging at times due to the steep inclines. So, plan accordingly.
  • Highland Creek Trail: This strenuous 8.6-mile (13.8 km) round-trip hike takes visitors through the park’s scenic forests and streams, with opportunities to see a variety of wildlife and wildflowers. It takes about 2-6 hours to complete and is a great option for nature lovers.
  • Elk Mountain Trail: This 1-mile (1.6 km) round trip hike takes visitors to the highest point in the park, offering incredible views of the Black Hills and surrounding landscape. It is perfect for experienced hikers who are looking for a longer and more challenging hike. Allow about 45 minutes to complete, with good physical condition.
  • Lookout Point Trail: This easy-moderate 2.2-mile (3.5 km) hike takes visitors to a historic fire lookout tower, offering stunning views of the park’s forests and hills. The route leads through grassland, Prairie dog towns, and Ponderosa Pine forests. So, allow about 2-3 hours to complete, and is a great option for those looking for a challenging yet rewarding hike.
  • Fairground Trail: This two-mile (3 km) loop trail offers hikers a chance to explore the amazing rolling hills and prairies of Wind Cave National Park. Along the way, you’ll get sweeping views of the park, plus plenty of opportunities to spot prairie dogs. Allow about an hour for this hike.
  • Centennial Trail: Of all the tours, this 6-mile (9.7 km) loop is one of the longest in the park, offering hikers the chance to explore a variety of different habitats. Along the way, you’ll get stunning views of the prairies and canyons, as well as plenty of opportunities to spot wildlife. Allow up to 5 hours for this hike.


Wind Cave National Park offers several options for camping, including frontcountry and backcountry camping.

Frontcountry camping (car and RV camping) is available at several campgrounds close to the park:

  • Rankin Ridge backcountry campground along Rankin Ridge Trail
  • Elk Mountain Campground has 62 sites that can accommodate RVs and tents on a first-come, first-serve basis. It is open year-round but reserved from late May through September at
  • Beaver Creek backcountry campground along Beaver Creek Trailhead

Note that a free permit obtained at the visitor center is required for backcountry camping along the designated areas within the park.

In addition to the park’s campgrounds and backcountry camping areas, you can also camp at several private campgrounds such as  Beaver Lake RV Campground, Custer / Mount Rushmore / Black Hills KOA Holiday, and Big Pine Campground.

Camping at night

Cave Tours

Wind Cave National Park is known for its intricate cave system, and visitors can explore the cave on various guided cave tours. The Wild Cave Tour, for instance, has tight passageways. The Candlelight Tour, Fairground Tour, and Natural Entrance Tour are three other popular choices.

Other tours vary in length and difficulty, but all offer a unique and fascinating look at the underground world of Wind Cave. But, the national park visitor center hours and guided cave tours vary by season.

Check out the Candlelight Tour and the Fairgrounds Tour to know the charges.

Ranger Programs

The park offers a free range of ranger-led programs, including guided hikes, wildlife talks, and night sky programs.

These programs are open to the public and are a great way to learn about the park’s history, geology, and ecology from the park rangers.

Scenic Drives

Most national parks have several scenic drives with stunning views of the landscape. The most popular in Wind Cave is the Wildlife Loop Road, a 19-mile (30.5 km) scenic drive that passes through many scenic areas. But, check with the national park service to find out other recommended routes.

Horseback Riding

Horseback riding is allowed in certain areas such as near Elk Mountain Campground and along Wind Cave Valley Road.

Horses must remain on established trails and can only be ridden between 9 am and 5 pm But visitors can bring their own horses or arrange a guided trail ride through a local outfitter.


Biking is allowed on some of the park’s roads and trails, making it a great way to explore the scenery at a faster pace. Bikes are available for rent but visitors can also bring their own.


There are several small lakes within the park, offering visitors the opportunity to fish for cutthroat trout, bass, and other species.

A valid South Dakota fishing license is required for anyone over 16 years old who wishes to fish in the park.

Where to Stay

Wind Cave National Park offers a variety of lodging options for visitors who want to stay inside the park.

There are campgrounds within the park, Elk Mountain Campground, and a few primitive backcountry camping sites. Reservations for campsites can be made online at

For those who prefer more comfortable accommodations, there are several lodges and cabins available for rent within the park. These include the historic Wind Cave Cabin and the Elk Haven vacation cabins in South Dakota.

If staying outside the park, nearby towns like Custer, Hot Springs, Hill City, and Rapid City offer a range of lodging options. There are hotels, motels, cabins, and campgrounds. Some popular lodging options in these towns include the State Game Lodge in Custer State Park, the Evans Plunge Resort in Hot Springs, and the Rushmore Express Inn & Suites in Rapid City.

Many visitors choose to stay in Custer, as it is the closest town to Wind Cave National Park because it offers a range of amenities and attractions, including restaurants, and shops.

Rapid City is a larger city and has more lodging options and attractions, but is further away from the park.

How to Get There and Getting Around

Wind Cave National Park is about 55 miles southwest of Rapid City. The closest airport is Rapid City Regional Airport, which is served by several major airlines, including Delta, United, and American.

From the airport, you can rent a car or take a shuttle service to get to the park.

For those driving, the main entrance is located off of US Highway 385. But there are other entrances and parking areas throughout the park.

Once inside the park, the main roads are paved and suitable for most private vehicles, but visitors should be aware that there are some steep grades and narrow sections. There are several parking areas throughout the park, as well as several hiking trails and backcountry roads that are only accessible by foot or high-clearance vehicles.

Tour companies offer sightseeing trips and other activities in and around Wind Cave National Park for visitors who don’t want to worry about transportation.

Bikes are allowed in certain areas of the park and are an excellent way to explore at a faster pace. But you need to check with the national park service to know the recommended routes.


Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota is an incredible destination for exploring one of the most unique natural wonders in the world.

With its vast dimly lit cave system, stunning landscapes, and other wildlife, there is truly something for everyone. From its rich history to its stunning natural beauty, Wind Cave is truly a hidden gem in the heart of South Dakota. So why not plan your next adventure to this amazing national park and discover all that it has to offer!

If you liked this post, feel free to check out more inspiring locations in our national parks guide.


Ralph S. is the founder of Silverlight, an avid hiker and trail runner he enjoys spending time outdoors, riding his motorcycle and swimming at the beach when he's not busy replying to customers or developing new Silverlight gear.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *