National Park Guides

Crater Lake National Park: The Remains of One of the World’s Largest Volcanic Eruptions

POSTED ON October 4, 2023 BY Ralph S.


Welcome to the mesmerizing world of Crater Lake National Park, a true gem in southern Oregon’s Cascade Mountains.

This blog post invites you to embark on a journey of exploration and wonder as we dive deep into the captivating story of this national treasure.

Crater Lake awaits your discovery. Formed when Mount Mazama, a once-dormant volcano, collapsed, it created a colossal caldera, now known as the park’s headquarters.

This park’s features include Wizard Island, a cinder cone within the lake, and the iconic Llao Rock.

Our adventure begins with a scenic drive along East Rim Drive, north junction, offering breathtaking pull-outs and views of the park’s breathtaking beauty.

For those seeking an immersive experience, venture into the park’s old-growth forest, home to a diverse flora and fauna. Vidae Falls [link], a hidden gem along the way, will leave you enchanted.

Explore Wizard Island, called “Giiwas” by the Klamath Tribe, which unveils the secrets of this unique island within a lake. As you journey around the park’s rim, you’ll be awestruck by the captivating vistas and the serene ice-blue waters.

Whether visiting from nearby Klamath Falls or afar, a trip to Crater Lake is an opportunity to step into a realm where nature’s beauty reigns supreme.

So, join us as we delve deep into the heart of this southern Oregon wonder and experience the magic of Crater Lake.

Crater Lake


Before this park became the celebrated natural wonder that it is today, its history was shaped by geological forces, indigenous peoples, and visionary conservationists.

The story begins more than 7,700 years ago when a colossal volcanic eruption shattered the towering Mount Mazama, a once-dormant volcano. The cataclysmic event left behind a massive depression, now home to the deep blue Lake, the deepest in the United States and the seventh deepest in the world. Also, this Lake is the crown jewel of the park, reflecting the sky like a celestial mirror.

For centuries, the Klamath Tribes, the indigenous people of this region, revered the lake, referring to it as a sacred place called “Giiwas,” and their oral traditions told of the mountain’s fiery wrath. To them, it was a place of great spiritual significance.

The park’s history took a significant turn in the late 1800s when it caught the attention of explorers and conservationists.

In 1886, Captain Clarence Dutton, a geologist, recognized the scientific value of the area and advocated for its protection. His efforts laid the foundation for what would become Crater Lake National Park.

In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the bill designating Crater Lake as the nation’s sixth national park, making it one of the earliest additions to the National Park Service. Park headquarters were established near Rim Village (location), providing a central point to learn about and explore the park.

One of the park’s iconic features is Wizard Island, a steep conical hill that rises majestically from the depths of the lake. Its unique shape and history add to the park’s allure.

Key Facts About Crater Lake National Park

Size: Approximately 183,224 acres (286.3 sq mi; 741.5 km2).

Number of Visitors: 527,259 (2021).

Establishment Date: May 22, 1902.

Number of Trails: About 23 designated trails.

Total Length of Trails: Around 110 miles (177 kilometers).

Lowest Point: 3,990 feet (1,216 meters) above sea level in the southwest corner of the park

Highest Point: Mount Scott, at 8,934 feet (2,723 meters) above sea level.

Crater Lake National Park

Other Interesting Facts

  • Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and the seventh deepest lake in the world, reaching depths of up to 1,949 feet (594 meters). It’s also one of the only two volcanic lakes in North America.
  • The beautiful blue hue of Crater Lake comes from its purity – it’s made almost exclusively from melted snow falls and rainwater that has evaporated over thousands of years.
  • At the bottom of Crater Lake lies an ancient caldera, the remains of a collapsed volcano called Mount Mazama. The collapse occurred 7,700 years ago in one of the world’s largest known volcanic eruptions – it was forty times larger than Mount St Helens. The surrounding cliffs of the caldera have a remarkable height of up to 2,000 feet (610 meters) and are composed of volcanic rock called “andesite,”
  • Multiple scenic drives around the lake offer spectacular views from different angles for most visitors to experience the area’s beauty.
  • The park is home to diverse flora and fauna, including old-growth forests, wildflowers, deer, elk, cougars, and black bears.
  • The lake’s water purity and isolation make it an ideal location for scientific research on topics ranging from limnology (the study of lakes and aquatic ecology) to climate change effects on water quality.
  • There are two islands in the lake, Wizard Island and Phantom Ship. Wizard Island is a cinder cone formed by a volcanic eruption thousands of years ago, and Phantom Ship is an erosional remnant of a volcano.
  • Crater Lake Park is a birdwatcher’s paradise, boasting over 200 species of breeding birds, such as bald eagles, ospreys, and owls.
  • The park is also home to a unique and breathtaking geological feature called Pumice Castle – one of the largest floating pumice islands, which stretches for nearly 4 miles (6 kilometers).
  • The impressive rock formation, named after a Native American god, Llao Rock stands majestically along the lake’s rim, adding to the park’s dramatic scenery.
  • Crater Lake Park is home to numerous hot springs, which were used by Native Americans as part of their traditional healing practices for centuries.

Climate and Weather

Winter in Crater Lake National Park

Crater Lake Park, in the southern Oregon wilderness, boasts a unique high-elevation climate that experiences distinct seasonal variations. So, it is crucial to understand the conditions throughout the year as you plan your trip to this natural wonder.

Spring (April – June)

In early spring, snowfall still blankets much of the park, with temperatures ranging from 0°C to 10°C (32°F to 50°F). By late spring, the ice begins to melt, revealing vibrant wildflower blooms.

Early spring is ideal for cross-country skiing, while late spring offers the chance to witness the park’s reawakening. As the frost melts, the park features lush greenery, and the lake’s surface starts to emerge.

Summer (July – September)

Summer months in Crater Lake are the warmest, with temperatures ranging from 10°C to 22°C (50°F to 72°F) in June and reaching 18°C to 27°C (65°F to 81°F) in July.

July is when most tourists flock to the park, enjoying the pleasant weather. It’s also the perfect time for trekking, exploring the Scenic Rim Drive, and taking in the awe-inspiring vistas. Swimming in the clear, deep-blue lake is another option during these warm months.

Fall (October)

Fall ushers in cooler temperatures, ranging from 7°C to 16°C (45°F to 61°F), as the park transforms into a mosaic of autumn colors.

October offers a quieter and more serene visit, with fewer crowds. You can witness the park’s trees adorned in vibrant hues of red, orange, and gold as you explore the trails and enjoy the crisp, invigorating air.

Winter (November – March)

Lastly, winter brings snowfall to the park, with temperatures ranging from -5°C to 3°C (23°F to 37°F) in December.

During this time, the Park becomes a winter wonderland, perfect for those seeking solitude. Winter activities like cross-country skiing and snowshoeing are popular here.

The Rim Drive is typically closed during winter, but enthusiasts can still access the park from the north and south entrances to enjoy these seasonal delights.

Check out this link for an updated forecast from the National Weather Service. 

Best Time To Visit Crater Lake National Park

The best time to go to Crater Lake Park is between June and September. During this period, the temperatures are pleasant, and the lake’s surface is exposed for visitors to enjoy.

Winter is also an ideal time to visit if you are seeking solitude. Cross-country skiing, snowshoeing, and witnessing the picturesque beauty of the park are great activities during these colder months.

The Park offers an opportunity to connect with nature, explore its unique environment, and immerse yourself in the beauty and tranquility of this natural treasure no matter the season of your visit.

Check the weather forecast before you go to ensure you’re well-prepared for the conditions you’ll encounter during your adventure.

Recommended Gear

Wilderness Crater Lake National Park

Crater Lake National Park, with its unique high-elevation environment and varying seasonal conditions, demands thoughtful preparation. Whether you’re visiting in the snowy depths of winter or the colorful splendor of fall, having the right equipment can enhance your outdoor adventures.

Here’s a breakdown of recommended gear for your trip:

  • Layered Clothing: No matter when you visit, layering is key. Temperatures can fluctuate throughout the day, so pack clothing that can be easily added or removed. The Cascade Mountains receive plenty of precipitation throughout the year. So, carry an insulated waterproof jacket or raincoat handy for protection from the elements. In summer, lightweight, breathable layers are ideal. We have a guide to help you choose the best hiking clothes for your next adventure.
  • Hiking Boots: For exploring the park’s rugged terrain, bring comfortable, waterproof hiking boots or shoes. In winter, consider insulated and waterproof options for snowy conditions. Choose between hiking boots and trail running shoes.
  • Maps and Navigation: Grab a detailed map of the park from the National Park Service or download a digital map to your smartphone. Knowing your way around the caldera and the surrounding Mountains is essential for safe and enjoyable exploration. We also have a guide to finding your way in the wilderness.
  • Hiking Gear: High altitudes mean strong UV rays from the sun in early July and mid-July. So, hiking gear such as a comfortable backpack, hydration system, and trekking poles can greatly enhance your experience. Don’t forget essentials like sunscreen, a hat, and sunglasses.
  • Winter Essentials: Gear up with snow-specific equipment because temperatures at Crater Lake can drop quickly, especially in October and beyond if you plan a winter visit. So, Snowshoes or cross-country skis are a must for exploring snowy terrain. Having snow chains for your vehicle is required for safe travel.
  • Camping Equipment: If you’re camping, ensure you have the necessary gear including a tent, sleeping bag, and camping stove. Check with the National Park Service for camping regulations and reservations.
  • Camera and Binoculars: Crater Lake offers unparalleled photo opportunities. Bring your camera and binoculars to capture the park’s stunning vistas and wildlife.
  • Safety Essentials: Safety should always come first. Carry a first-aid kit, a multi-tool or knife, a flashlight, and extra batteries. Consider avalanche safety gear if you plan on venturing into the backcountry in winter.
  • Respectful Outdoor Gear: In keeping with Leave No Trace principles, bring gear for responsible outdoor adventures. Pack out all trash, use established trails, and follow park rules to minimize environmental impact.
  • Snow Chains: If you go in the winter, having snow chains for your vehicle is often required for safe travel.

Note: It is essential to check with park rangers for any special safety guidelines or regulations before embarking on your journey.

What To Do In Crater Lake National Park

Crater Lake National Park is full of year-round activities. From exploring the rugged terrain along the rim to marveling at the stunning clarity of the lake, there’s no shortage of outdoor recreation opportunities in this pristine wilderness.

But before you set out on your journey, Here’s a look at the activities and attractions to get you started in this magnificent park:

Hiking and Backpacking

Crater Lake Terrain

From the Pinnacles to the Pacific Crest Trail, Crater Lake Park beckons adventurers with its pristine wilderness and a network of captivating paths that showcase its diverse landscapes and breathtaking vistas.

As you explore these trails, you’ll encounter must-see attractions and viewpoints, including the awe-inspiring Crater Peak and the scenic Rim Drive, all of which provide unparalleled vistas of the park’s centerpiece. Also, don’t miss the invigorating trek to Cleetwood Cove, the only access point to the lake’s crystal-clear waters.

Best Hikes

  • The Pinnacles Trail: This is an approximately 0.8 miles (1.3 kilometers) easy-to-moderate short and rewarding trek that takes you through a landscape of unique geological formations known as “The Pinnacles.” These towering spires of volcanic rock are remnants of Mount Mazama’s explosive past. The trail offers intriguing views of these formations and the surrounding forest. Expect to spend around 1-1.5 hours exploring this trail.
  • Crater Peak Trail: An approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 kilometers) moderate trail that takes you up Crater Peak. It offers panoramic views of Crater Lake, Wizard Island, and the surrounding caldera. The trail traverses through a lush meadow and offers an excellent vantage point for capturing the lake’s pristine beauty. Plan a 4-6 hour hike, including time to soak in the views.
  • Pacific Crest Trail (PCT): The PCT section within the park is approximately 33 miles (53 kilometers). It is a challenging trip due to its length and elevation changes. This segment traverses the eastern rim of the caldera as part of the iconic Pacific Crest Trail. Hikers are treated to breathtaking views of Crater Lake, lush forests, and unique rock formations. It offers a backcountry experience like no other in the park. This is a multi-day hike, so plan accordingly, with the possibility of camping along the trail.
  • Discovery Point Trail: This is an approximately 2-mile (3.2 kilometers) short and easy trail near the park’s Rim Village leading to the Discovery Point and provides one of the most iconic views of Crater Lake. You’ll witness the lake’s brilliant blue waters framed by the towering caldera rim. Allow an hour for this quick and rewarding Trail.
  • Watchman Trail: This is an approximately 1.6 miles (2.6 kilometers) long moderate footpath that takes you to the summit of Watchman Peak, offering panoramic views of the lake and surrounding mountains. The trail is popular for its spectacular sunsets, making it an ideal place to capture stunning photos. It takes about 1-2 hours to complete.
  • Rim Trail: The Rim Trail is an easy-to-moderate stretch, depending on the section chosen, and offers a comprehensive exploration of Crater Lake’s rim. You can choose to hike shorter segments or tackle the entire loop to experience the park’s varied landscapes. The full loop can take several days, but shorter segments can be completed in a few hours.
  • Cleetwood Cove Trail: This is an approximately 2.2 miles (3.5 kilometers) long moderate-to-strenuous path due to the steep grade. Cleetwood Clove is the only legal access point to Crater Lake’s shoreline, and hikers can take a refreshing dip in the crystal-clear waters or enjoy boat tours. The steep descent to the lake and ascent back up make for a challenging but rewarding experience, so plan a 2-3 hour hike, including time by the lake.

Beautiful Scenery around Crater Lake


Camping in the Park offers an unparalleled opportunity to connect with its pristine wilderness, starry skies, and breathtaking landscapes. There are also several options to suit your outdoor aspirations, whether you prefer established campgrounds or backcountry adventures.

Lost Creek Campground

Lost Creek Campground is the park’s largest campground, offering tent-only sites at $5 per night. It is typically open from late June to early October (subject to climatic conditions).

Amenities include restrooms, picnic tables, fire rings, and potable water. However, while reservations are not accepted, sites are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Hence, you must arrive early.

Mazama Campground

Mazama Campground, located in a peaceful forest setting, offers tent and RV sites. It is open from late June to early September, providing restrooms, picnic tables, fire rings, and a nearby store for supplies. Here’s a map of Mazama Campground.

Reservations are recommended and can be made through the National Recreation Reservation Service (NRRS) website.[Link to reservations].

Summer Designated Backcountry Campsites

For those seeking a more immersive wilderness experience, the Park offers designated backcountry campsites like Bybee Creek, Lightning Springs, and Grouse Hill. These sites are accessible via trails, but you need a backcountry camping permit obtained from the park’s official permits page.

When planning your camping trip, check the park’s official website for the most up-to-date information on campground availability, seasonal opening dates, and other specific regulations.

Winter Backcountry Regulations

Winter camping in the Park is a unique adventure, but it comes with specific regulations and safety considerations to guarantee safety. These include avalanche safety awareness and specific guidelines for camping within the park during the winter months.

Camping around Crater Lake

Boat and Trolley Tours

Depending on the climate, the Wizard Island Tour typically operates from late June to early September. It takes you to the majestic Wizard Island. On the island, you can hike to the summit, swim in the crystal-clear waters, or simply soak in the breathtaking surroundings. The boat tour offers insights into the lake’s geological history and natural wonders.

Reservations are highly recommended and can be made through the National Recreation Reservation Service (NRRS) website.

Crater Lake Trolley Guided Tours offer a comfortable and informative way to experience the park. Knowledgeable guides share fascinating stories about Crater Lake’s formation, history, and unique ecology as you journey through the park’s scenic roads.

Trolley tours typically last around two hours and include stops at iconic viewpoints, where you can take in stunning vistas of Crater Lake.

But it’s advisable to make reservations in advance, especially during the park’s peak months.


Road cyclists can try the iconic Rim Drive, a 33-mile (53-kilometer) route that encircles the caldera rim. This scenic road offers breathtaking views of Crater Lake and its surroundings. The road is typically open from late June to mid-October, depending on snow conditions.

While mountain biking is not allowed in most parts of the park due to its sensitive ecosystem, there are options nearby in the surrounding national forests and wilderness areas.

You can explore nearby Umpqua National Forest and Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest for mountain biking adventures. These areas offer a variety of trails suitable for different skill levels.

However, always adhere to the regulations of the specific forest or wilderness area you are biking in.


The designated angling area is primarily at Cleetwood Cove, the only legal access point to the lake’s shoreline. However, you do not need any permit within the park, but fish catching is regulated to protect the park’s unique ecosystem and maintain water quality. You can review the park’s regulations here.

All fishing within the park is catch-and-release only, and no fish stocking is conducted. The National Park Service asks anglers to limit their activities to designated areas.

Winter Activities

From exhilarating downhill skiing and snowboarding to family-friendly sledding, winter activities here promise a memorable adventure.

  • Downhill Skiing and Snowboarding

The park offers excellent opportunities for downhill skiing and snowboarding on the slopes of the park’s rim. While the terrain is limited compared to dedicated ski resorts, the serene surroundings and stunning views of Crater Lake make this experience truly unique.

There are no ski lifts or rental shops within the park, so visitors must bring their own equipment. Be prepared for a challenging uphill hike to access the slopes, but the rewarding descents are worth the effort.

Skiing and snowboarding in the park require careful consideration of safety factors, including avalanche awareness, weather conditions, and equipment maintenance.

  • Sledding

For a family-friendly winter activity, head to designated sledding areas within the park. These areas are typically near the Rim Village and offer a safe and fun way to enjoy the snow.

Bring your sleds or inner tubes for a thrilling ride down the slopes. Safety gear and supervision for children are essential.

Sledding areas are subject to weather and snowpack conditions.

Check the park’s website for current information on sledding availability. Also, If you plan to check out off-piste areas for skiing or snowboarding, it’s crucial to have avalanche awareness and safety equipment.

Winter backcountry activities often require permits. Check with the park’s official website for details.

Winter Snow in Crater Lake

Where To Stay

When planning your trip to Crater Lake, it’s essential to consider where to stay to make the most of your experience.

Here are the available options both within the park and in nearby towns:

Within the Park:

Here are two options for those who prefer to stay outside the park

  • Crater Lake Lodge: The iconic Crater Lake Lodge sits on the edge of Rim Village and provides stunning views of the lake. It features modern amenities such as a restaurant and bar, complimentary Wi-Fi, and an outdoor patio. Click this link to make Room Reservations.
  • Cabins at Mazama Village: The Cabins at Mazama Village provide a more rustic experience for most visitors. These cabins located in the forested area of the park offer limited but comfortable amenities, perfect for a cozy stay surrounded by nature. The Mazama Campground is a popular choice for tent and RV campers, while the Mazama Cabins provide a comfortable retreat. The village also has a store for supplies and dining options. Click here to book a cabin.

Outside the Park:

There are a few lodging options for visitors who prefer to stay outside the park:

  • Union Creek & Vicinity: The Union Creek & Vicinity (21 miles/34 km west of the Park) is one of the closest towns to Crater Lake National Park with lodging options that range from cabin rentals and beds and breakfasts to full-service hotels.
  • Diamond Lake & Vicinity: About 25 miles/40 km north of the Park, (when the North Entrance is Open) is another option for visitors, with a variety of accommodations including cabins, lodges, RV parks, and campgrounds. It’s located near the park’s North Entrance and provides access to nearby outdoor activities such as boating and snowmobiling.
  • Prospect & Vicinity: Prospect & Vicinity, 32 miles/51 km west of the Park, is a small mountain town on the edge of Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest. It includes lodging options ranging from budget hotels to luxury lodges.
  • Chiloquin & Vicinity: Located approximately 33 miles/53 km south of the Park and tucked away in the vast landscapes of Klamath Basin, Chiloquin & Vicinity offers visitors plenty of accommodation options such as campgrounds, RV parks, motels, cabins, and vacation rentals.
  • Fort Klamath & Vicinity: About 20 miles/32 km south of Park Headquarters is the last nearby town and sits on the edge of Winema National Forest, offering a variety of lodging options such as hotels, RV parks, cabins, and vacation rentals.

How To Get There And Getting Around

While it’s a remote and pristine destination, getting there and navigating the park is entirely achievable with some planning.

Here’s how to make your journey to Crater Lake a smooth and memorable experience:

How to Get Around Crater Lake Park

By Air:

The Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport (MFR) and Klamath Falls Airport (LMT) are the closest airports to Crater Lake National Park.

  • From Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport (MFR): Rent a car at the airport and drive north on Highway 62, which will take you directly to the park’s southern entrance.
  • From Klamath Falls Airport (LMT): Similarly, rent a car at the airport head north on Highway 97, and then turn onto Highway 62 to reach the park.

By Car:

  • Crater Lake is accessible by car year-round via several routes from any nearest major city. The most common approach is via Oregon Highway 62, which leads to the park’s southern entrance. If you’re traveling from the north, Highway 138 is another option.

Getting Around Crater Lake National Park:

  • Park Shuttles (Summer Only): The park offers a shuttle service that operates along the Rim Drive, providing access to various viewpoints and attractions. It’s a convenient way to navigate the park without the hassle of parking.
  • Car: Having your vehicle is the most flexible way to navigate the Park. But keep in mind that some park roads, including the Rim Drive, are closed during the winter due to heavy snowfall. Access to certain areas like the Pinnacles Road may require alternative routes. Check the park’s official website for current road conditions.
  • Hiking and Biking: Exploring the park on foot or by bike is a great way to experience its natural beauty. There are numerous trails and opportunities for biking during the summer months.
  • Winter Access: In winter, Crater Lake can be accessed via the North Entrance Road from Highway 138. But be prepared for snowy conditions and possible road closures. Snowshoes or cross-country skis can be essential for exploring.

You can also get more information about reaching the park from this link.


Visiting the Crater Lake National Park is a truly unforgettable experience. With its majestic views, fascinating geology, and abundant wildlife, it’s no wonder why it’s one of America’s most visited national parks.

Whether you’re looking for a peaceful getaway or an adventurous outdoor escape, Crater Lake has something to offer for everyone.

Check out more National Parks like Crater Lake Here.


Ralph S. is the founder of Silverlight, an avid hiker and trail runner he enjoys spending time outdoors, riding his motorcycle and swimming at the beach when he's not busy replying to customers or developing new Silverlight gear.

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