National Park Guides

Exploring the Depths of Carlsbad Caverns National Park

POSTED ON July 19, 2023 BY Ralph S.

Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a mesmerizing natural wonder in southeastern New Mexico. As one of the most remarkable national parks in the United States, Carlsbad offers an unforgettable underground adventure that will leave you in awe.

Hidden beneath the rugged terrain and desert wildlife of the Guadalupe Mountains, Carlsbad Caverns boasts a labyrinth of magnificent cavities and chambers. The primary attraction is the incredible Slaughter Canyon Cave, featuring the breathtaking Green Lake Room—a sight that seems to be from another world.

You can embark on an exhilarating hike through the natural entrance or access the cave via an elevator. Whichever route you choose, be prepared to witness the surreal attraction of stalactites, stalagmites, and other unique formations meticulously sculpted over millions of years.

Carlsbad Caverns is truly a must-visit destination for nature enthusiasts, adventurers, and those seeking a captivating exploration beneath the surface of the Southwest. So, join us on this virtual journey as we delve into the depths of this extraordinary park and uncover its hidden treasures.



Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, holds a rich history that spans several decades and showcases the remarkable beauty hidden beneath the surface of southeastern New Mexico. Established as a national park under the National Park Service, this unique destination attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.

Nestled within the Guadalupe Mountains, the park features the magnificent Carlsbad Caverns, a network of caverns formed by the erosion of limestone over millions of years. With deep rocky canyons and high ancient sea ledges, this region offers a captivating blend of natural wonders.

At the park entrance, visitors are greeted by the impressive visitor center, which serves as the gateway to an underground realm. The entrance allows hikers to descend into the caverns, immersing themselves in the mesmerizing sights and sounds of this subterranean world.

Among the various caves within Carlsbad Caverns, the Slaughter Canyon Cave stands out, showcasing the breathtaking formations of the King’s Palace, Queen’s Chamber, and Papoose Room. These awe-inspiring limestone creations, shaped by time and geological processes, leave you in awe of nature’s artistry.

Carlsbad Caverns National Park is also renowned for its bat flight program. As dusk settles, visitors gather to witness the incredible sight of bats soaring out of the caverns in search of food. This captivating phenomenon, fueled by the natural instincts of these winged creatures, is a testament to the park’s unique ecosystem.

The surrounding Chihuahuan Desert (info) and its diverse wildlife further enhance the allure of this enchanting destination. Explorers are encouraged to venture beyond the caverns and explore the historic district, hike the desert trails, or even visit the nearby Spider Cave for an added adventure.

As Carlsbad Caverns Park continues to welcome visitors from all over the world, the park management strives to preserve its natural integrity while accommodating future changes. The nearby town of White’s City and the influence of Jim White, who first discovered the caverns in the early 1900s, have contributed to the park’s accessibility and growth.

A section of Carlsbad Caverns

Key Facts about Carlsbad Caverns National Park

Size: Approximately 46,766 acres (18,928 hectares).

Number of visitors: 440,691 (2019)

Established on: May 14, 1930, as Carlsbad Cave National Monument and later designated as a national park under the National Park Service.

Length of Hiking Trails: Approximately 46 miles (74 kilometers)

Highest Point: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, at 8,751 feet (2,667 meters) above sea level.

Lowest Point: Entrance to the caverns at about 3,596 feet (1,096 meters) above sea level.

Other interesting facts about Carlsbad Cavern:

  • Carlsbad Caverns is home to one of the largest underground chambers in North America, known as the Big Room. which spans over 33,000 square feet (3,066 square meters).
  • The park features a unique phenomenon known as the bat flight. During summer evenings, hundreds of thousands of Mexican free-tailed bats emerge from the caverns, creating a captivating spectacle as they embark on their nightly hunt for insects.
  • Carlsbad Caverns holds a hidden gem called the Hall of the White Giant. This chamber contains a massive gypsum crystal measuring approximately 30 feet (9 meters) in length, making it one of the largest natural gypsum formations in the world.
  • The park’s natural entrance, located in a picturesque landscape, allows you to descend 750 feet (229 meters) into the depths of the caverns on a self-guided hike, providing a truly immersive experience.
  • Carlsbad Caverns Park offers more than just the main cavern. There are over 100 known caverns within the park boundaries, each with its own unique geological formations and mysteries waiting to be explored.
  • The park’s limestone formations continue to grow and evolve. Slow drips of water over thousands of years have created beautiful stalactites, stalagmites, and other intricate formations, shaping the stunning underground landscape.
  • Within the caverns, there is a room named Green Lake Room, which got its name from a small, algae-covered lake. This room showcases the delicate balance between life and geology within the underground ecosystem.
  • Carlsbad Caverns National Park is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, designated for its outstanding geological significance and natural attraction.
  • The park is a treasure trove for paleontologists. Fossilized remains of ancient creatures, including mastodons, sloths, and saber-toothed cats, have been discovered in the area, providing valuable insights into the region’s prehistoric past.
  • In addition to the captivating underground wonders, the park’s surface is a haven for diverse desert wildlife. From roadrunners and mule deer to coyotes and rattlesnakes, the Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem surrounding the caverns is teeming with other fascinating ground animal species. You can check out this list of mammals found in the park.
  • Carlsbad Caverns is a designated International Dark Sky Park, offering stargazers breathtaking views of the night sky. Away from city lights, you can marvel at the celestial wonders above, including the Milky Way and countless stars.

Cavern formation

Climate and Weather

When planning to visit Carlsbad Caverns National Park, it’s essential to consider the climate and weather conditions to make the most of your experience.

The park showcases a unique climate influenced by its desert location and elevation in southeastern New Mexico.

Spring (March to May)

Spring brings a delightful transformation to the park, as the desert comes alive with blooming wildflowers and flowering cactus. Temperatures range from 70°F to 80°F (21°C to 27°C) during the day, providing pleasant conditions for exploration.

It’s worth noting that late spring, around mid-October, can experience occasional rain showers, so it’s advisable to carry appropriate rain gear during this time.

Summer (June to August)

You’ll be greeted by the warm and arid climate characteristic of the region upon arriving at the park’s visitor center and park entrance.

Summers in Carlsbad Caverns can be scorching, with temperatures ranging from 90°F to 100°F (32°C to 38°C) during the day. It’s advisable to bring sun protection, including a hat, sunscreen, and plenty of water, as you explore the deep rocky canyons and high ancient sea ledges surrounding the caverns.

Fall (September to November)

Fall brings more pleasant weather to the park, with temperatures ranging from 70°F to 80°F (21°C to 27°C) during the day.

It’s a fantastic time for touring Carlsbad Caverns, as the summer crowds have thinned, allowing for a more serene experience. The iconic Big Room, a primary attraction within Carlsbad Caverns, offers a cool respite from the outside temperatures, as the caverns maintain a constant temperature of around 56°F (13°C) year-round.

Winter (December to February)

Winter in Carlsbad Caverns brings cooler temperatures, averaging between 50°F and 60°F (10°C to 16°C) during the day, and occasionally dropping below freezing at night.

The park’s historic district and ranger-guided tours remain open, but it’s important to note that access to certain areas may be limited due to weather conditions.

As with any outdoor destination, it’s always important to check weather forecasts and be prepared for future changes. Here is a link to the National Weather Service for detailed weather conditions.

When to Visit

Located just a short drive from the town of Carlsbad and about two hours from El Paso, Texas, it offers a unique underground experience through the natural entrance. Carlsbad Caverns welcomes hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and regardless of the season, the captivating attraction of the caverns and limestone formations awaits exploration at this magnificent site.

The best time to visit Carlsbad Caverns, however, is from April through October. The park’s visitor center and entrance are located in White’s City, New Mexico, approximately two thirds of the way between El Paso, Texas, and Carlsbad, New Mexico. The natural entrance to the cave is just a short walk away.

The summer months offer the chance to witness an unforgettable sight: the bat flight. During this event, hundreds of thousands of bats emerge from their cavernous homes at dusk for a nightly hunt for insects. This unique spectacle should not be missed.

In addition to viewing the bat flight, late spring (around mid-October) offers blooming wildflowers and flowering cacti. The park entrance is open all year round, providing you with two entries: the main entrance or the natural cave entrance. The latter offers a unique experience, as visitors have to descend 750 feet (229 meters) into the depths of the caverns on a self-guided hike.

Moreover, there are over 100 known caves in the park worth exploring. Each one has its own unique geological formations and mysteries waiting to be discovered. Touring these other caves requires prior knowledge and permission from the National Park Service before entering.

You can also take a ranger-led tour because the caverns’ constant temperature provides a comfortable environment year-round. But remember that sulfuric acid is present in some areas of the cave, so make sure to follow safety instructions when visiting.

Recommended Gear

To make the most of your visit to Carlsbad Caverns National Park, it’s essential to have the right gear based on the season you plan to explore. But always remember to pack essentials such as a small backpack, snacks, a map or directions to the park (which are available here), and a flashlight or headlamp for exploration, regardless of the season.

Here are some recommendations for each season: You can also check out our guide on what to include in a day or multi-day hike.

Hiking gear


Opt for sturdy shoes with good traction, as you’ll walk on various terrains within the park, including trails and cave floors.

Spring temperatures can vary, so dress in layers to accommodate changes throughout the day. A light jacket or sweater is advisable, especially in the early mornings and evenings. We have a detailed guide to the recommended clothing to help you stay comfortable while hiking.

Don’t forget to bring a hat, sunglasses, and sunscreen to shield yourself from the sun’s rays while exploring the park’s surface areas.


Choose lightweight and loose-fitting clothing to stay cool in the park’s midday heat. Wearing moisture-wicking materials can help keep you comfortable during hikes.

Stay hydrated by carrying a water bottle or a hydration pack to ensure you have enough water throughout your visit.

Protect yourself from the intense sun by wearing a wide-brimmed hat and applying sunscreen regularly.

Be sure to bring some warmer layers as well during your cave exploration, as the caves will have much cooler temperatures than the desert surface.


Similar to spring, fall weather can be unpredictable, so dress in layers to adapt to changing temperatures. A light jacket or sweater will come in handy during cooler mornings and evenings.

Choose comfortable shoes suitable for walking and hiking, as you explore the park’s trails. Here is an article that looks at some of the common injuries you might experience while hiking.

Late fall can bring occasional rain showers, so it’s a good idea to pack a lightweight rain jacket or poncho, just in case. But you can find good information in our guide about backpacking and hiking in the rain.


Winter temperatures in Carlsbad Caverns can be chilly, especially in the caves. Dress in warm layers, including a thermal base layer, a sweater or fleece jacket, and a waterproof outer layer.

Keep your extremities warm by wearing a hat, gloves, and scarf to protect against the cold.

Choose sturdy shoes or boots with good traction to navigate any potentially icy or slippery surfaces in and around the caves. Also, include a pair of Silverlight compression socks to prevent blisters.

In addition to all the essentials mentioned above, it would be a good idea to include insect repellant, navigation equipment, and a first aid kit.

What to Do in Carlsbad National Park

There are plenty of things to do in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, so no matter what season you visit, you’ll discover something fascinating. The park’s natural entrance offers a unique opportunity to explore the limestone formations and mysterious rooms deep within the cave. Guided tours are available that take you along an easy-to-navigate path with several stops to admire breathtaking geological features such as stalactites and stalagmites.

In addition to cave exploration, there are many other outdoor activities to enjoy in Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Trails offer stunning views of the surrounding desert landscape, often leading to overlooks where you can observe local wildlife, including birds, insects, reptiles, amphibians, and bats. Birdwatchers will also enjoy visiting Carlsbad Caverns during the spring or fall when several species migrate through the area.

Finally, be sure to check out the visitor center for a wealth of information and educational materials about Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The museum offers details about the geological history and formation processes, local wildlife, and more. This is a great way to learn more about this remote corner of New Mexico before you explore it in person.

Hiking and Backpacking

Hiking and backpacking in Carlsbad Cavern is a great way to explore the park’s diverse landscapes, including its desert environment and rugged limestone formations. There are several trails to choose from, each with unique features and attractions.

The Hall of the White Giant Trail is an easy 1-mile (1.6 km) hike that takes you past calcite deposits, sinkholes, and some fascinating rock formations. The trail culminates with a memorable view of the “Giant,” a huge stalagmite rising up from the cave floor.

More experienced hikers may want to tackle the challenging 2-mile (3.2 km) Devil’s Spring Trail, which involves steep climbs and numerous switchbacks. Along the way, you’ll see unusual rock formations, desert foliage, and beautiful views of the Guadalupe Mountains.

Best Hikes in Carlsbad Cavern Park

  • Natural Entrance Trail: This is an approximately 1.25 miles (2 kilometers) one-way moderate trail involving descents of about 750 feet (229 meters) into the cavern via a series of switchbacks and steep slopes. You will enjoy stunning views of the desert landscape as you go down to the cavern entrance. But you need to look out for flowering cactus and unique rock formations along the trail. The hike down takes around 45 minutes to 1 hour, while the return hike uphill takes about 1 to 1.5 hours.
  • Big Room Trail: This is approximately 1.25 miles (2 kilometers) easy loop that is mostly flat and well-paved, making it suitable for all skill levels. Hikers will explore the massive underground chamber known as the Big Room, featuring awe-inspiring stalactites, stalagmites, and rock formations. Look out for notable formations like the Giant Dome and the Rock of Ages. The loop can take around 1.5 to 2 hours, allowing ample time to admire the remarkable formations along the way.

The Big Room, Carlsbad Caverns

  • Kings Palace Trail: This is approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) round trip with moderately steep sections and uneven surfaces, requiring moderate physical exertion. Visitors will discover the impressive formations of the King’s Palace, including large columns, draperies, and chandeliers formed by sulfuric acid dissolving the limestone. Marvel at the allure of this hidden underground treasure. Plan for approximately 1.5 to 2 hours to complete the round trip, allowing time to explore and appreciate the unique features of the King’s Palace.
  • Slaughter Canyon Cave: This guided tour is approximately a 1-mile (2 kilometers) round trip and involves a steep and challenging descent into the cave. It requires participants to be in good physical condition. Hikers will explore the stunning formations of Slaughter Canyon Cave, including the dramatic Monarch Room and the Papoose Room. Witness intricate stalactites and stalagmites in this lesser-known cave. The guided tour takes approximately 1 to 2 hours, including the trek to and from the cave entrance.
  • Spider Cave: This guided tour covers approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) round trip. It involves crawling, stooping, and climbing through narrow passages, making it suitable for adventurous hikers with good physical fitness. You will embark on an unforgettable excursion in the lesser-explored Spider Cave. Discover hidden passages, delicate formations, and the thrill of crawling through tight spaces.

The guided tour lasts approximately 2 to 4 hours, including the hike to and from the cave entrance and exploring Spider Cave.

Always remember to consult a ranger for the most up-to-date information, trail conditions, and any specific guidelines or restrictions before embarking on these hikes in Carlsbad Cavern National Park.


Carlsbad Cavern offers the opportunity to immerse yourself in the natural attractions of the area by camping near the park and not inside. Primitive camping is available in the backcountry, west of the Rattlesnake Canyon trailhead off the Desert Scenic Loop Road and south of the Guadalupe Ridge Trail.

Here are the available campgrounds and important details to know.

Sunset Reef Campground:

The Sunset Reef Campground is situated near the visitor center and offers convenient access to the park’s attractions. The campground provides tent and RV sites, picnic tables, and fire pits. Drinking water is available, but there are no hookups or showers.

Reservations are not accepted, and sites are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Arrive early, especially during peak seasons, to secure a spot.

Chosa Campground:

Chosa Campground is located a few miles south of the visitor center, closer to the historic district and the main entrance. This campground offers tent camping only, with no other amenities. So, visitors can only stay up to 14 days.

Similar to Carlsbad Campground, Chosa Campground operates on a first-come, first-served basis, and reservations are not accepted.

Additionally, be prepared with camping essentials, including food, water, proper gear, and adequate provisions for waste disposal.

For more information on camping regulations, availability, and current conditions, it is recommended to contact the visitor center or a ranger. They can provide up-to-date information, directions, and any specific guidelines or restrictions related to camping in Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

Cavern Exploration

From self-guided tours through the Big Room and Kings Palace to more adventurous guided tours in caves like Slaughter Canyon and Spider Cave, you can delve into the depths of these stunning underground wonders.

Be sure to check with the visitor center for availability, reservations, and safety guidelines for each tour.

Scenic Drive

Explore the scenic Carlsbad Caverns through picturesque drives. The Rattlesnake Springs Drive is a 5-mile (8-kilometer) scenic route leading to a tranquil oasis with a picnic area and wetlands teeming with birdlife.

Ranger-Guided Tours and Programs

Join a ranger-led tour or program like the King’s Palace Tour to enhance your understanding and appreciation of Carlsbad Caverns.

Rangers offer informative and engaging experiences, such as guided cave walks, talks on geology and cave formations, and interactive demonstrations.

Check the schedule at the National Park Service centers for specific programs and their availability during your visit because the tours are usually limited.

You can make your tour reservations by calling 877-444-6777 or visiting

Bat Flight Programs

Witness the incredible spectacle of the bat flight program at Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

During summer evenings, you can gather at the amphitheater to observe hundreds of thousands of Mexican free-tailed bats emerging from the caverns in search of insects. Rangers provide informative presentations to deepen your understanding of these fascinating creatures and their vital role in the ecosystem. But remember that Photography and filming should be done under a special use permit obtained from the park at least two weeks in advance.

Night Sky Programs

Carlsbad Caverns National Park offers remarkable opportunities for stargazing. Join a nighttime program to learn about astronomy, constellations, and preserving dark skies.

Rangers guide hikers and backpackers through captivating celestial experiences and provide telescopes for a closer look at the stars, planets, and other celestial objects.

Where to Stay

When planning a tour of Carlsbad Caverns, there are options for staying inside the park and in nearby towns. Here are some suggestions for accommodations:

Inside Carlsbad Cavern:

White’s City RV Park and Campground (map)

Located near the entrance in White’s City, this RV park and campground offers sites for both RVs and tents.

It provides amenities such as hookups, restrooms, showers, and a convenience store.

Backcountry Camping:

For those seeking a more adventurous experience, consider backcountry camping in designated areas. Obtain a backcountry camping permit from the visitor center before embarking on your wilderness adventure.

Nearby Towns:

Carlsbad, New Mexico

The town of Carlsbad (map) is approximately 20 miles (32 kilometers) from the park and offers a range of lodging options, including hotels, motels, and vacation rentals. Carlsbad provides additional amenities such as restaurants, shops, and services, making it a convenient base for exploring the national monument.

Guadalupe Mountains National Park (Texas)

Located about 40 miles (64 kilometers) southwest of Carlsbad Caverns, Guadalupe Mountains National Park (map) offers its own unique attractions and hiking opportunities. The Pine Springs Campground in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park provides tent and RV sites with basic amenities.

When staying in nearby towns, you can access Carlsbad Caverns by following directions from the town or utilizing the park’s two entries: The natural entrance and the elevator access. It is essential to check for directions and plan accordingly to ensure a smooth tour of the park. Also, book accommodations in advance, especially during peak seasons, to secure your desired lodging and make the most of your tour of this extraordinary national park.

How to Get There

Getting to Carlsbad Caverns National Park is an exciting journey through the scenic landscapes of New Mexico.

Here’s a guide on how to reach the park and get around once you arrive:

Nearest Airports:

The closest major airport to Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, is Cavern City Air Terminal (CNM), located in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

This airport serves as the gateway to the park, offering domestic flights from select cities. Another option is Roswell International Air Center (ROW), situated approximately 90 miles (145 kilometers) northeast of the park, which provides additional flight connections.

From the Airport to the Park:

Once you arrive at Cavern City Air Terminal or Roswell International Air Center, the most convenient way to reach the Park is by ground transportation.

Car rentals are available at both airports, providing flexibility and convenience for your visit. From Carlsbad, the park is approximately a 20-mile (32-kilometer) southwest drive, while from Roswell, it’s approximately a 90-mile (145-kilometer) drive to the park’s entrance.

Getting Around Carlsbad Caverns National Park:

Once you’ve arrived at the park, getting around is relatively straightforward. Here are the primary methods of transportation within the park:

Walking: The National Park features trails and pathways that allow hikers to explore the surface areas, including the visitor’s center, picnic areas, and scenic overlooks. Walking is a great way to immerse yourself in the park’s natural attractions while enjoying the breathtaking views of the surrounding landscapes.

Elevator: For those who prefer not to take the walk down the natural entrance trail, an elevator is available to take you directly into the cavern. The elevator provides easy access to the Big Room, the park’s primary attraction, and one of the world’s largest cave chambers.

Park Shuttles (if available): Depending on the season and visitor demand, the park may provide shuttle services within specific areas. Check with the visitor center or consult a park ranger for information on shuttle availability and routes.

Car: Having a private vehicle allows flexibility for exploring the park and nearby attractions at your own pace. The park provides parking areas, making it convenient to access different sections and trailheads.


Visiting Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico is a unique and unforgettable experience. With its fascinating underground caverns, breathtaking night programs, and stunning views of the surrounding landscapes, this remarkable park offers something for everyone.

Whether you are looking for an adventurous outdoor experience or just want to soak up the incredible allure of nature, Carlsbad Caverns has something special in store. So go ahead and start planning your trip today.


Ralph S. is the founder of Silverlight, an avid hiker and trail runner he enjoys spending time outdoors, riding his motorcycle and swimming at the beach when he's not busy replying to customers or developing new Silverlight gear.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *