Hikes & Trails

The Ultimate Guide to Hiking the Billy Goat Trail

POSTED ON May 30, 2023 BY Ralph S.


Nestled in the middle of the Great Falls, Billy Goat Trail is a popular hiking destination renowned for its challenging terrain and breathtaking scenery.

This nationally recognized treasure attracts outdoor enthusiasts from across the globe, who flock to the Potomac River rapids seeking adventure, fun, and a profound sense of connection with nature.

Whether you are an experienced hiker, a trail runner, a backpacker, or a thru-hiker, Billy Goat Trail offers a perfect mix of challenges and rewards that leave you feeling reinvigorated and fulfilled. This ultimate guide tells you everything you need to know to plan and execute the perfect adventure.

Billy Goat Trail Landscape

History of the Billy Goat Trail

A Historical Tapestry: The story of the Billy Goat Trail begins in the early 20th century when the area was known as the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. The park was established to preserve the remnants of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, a vital transportation route during the 19th century. As the canal fell into disuse, the park was created to protect the historical and natural significance of the area.

Birth of the Trail: The Billy Goat Trail owes its name to one of the area’s early inhabitants, a hermit named Ferdie Grof. Grof lived in a small stone hut along the trail during the 1920s and owned a herd of goats, which were notorious for their ability to nimbly navigate the steep cliffs and rocky terrain. Local hikers began referring to the trail as the “Billy Goat Trail” in honor of Grof and his agile companions.

In the decades that followed, the Billy Goat Trail gained popularity among outdoor enthusiasts, attracting hikers from far and wide.

Preserving Nature and Legacy: Today, the Billy Goat Trail remains an integral part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. It is cherished not only for its scenic beauty but also for its historical significance. Efforts have been made to preserve the delicate ecosystem and ensure that future generations can continue to experience the wonder of this natural gem.

Key Facts about the Billy Goat Trail

Length: About 8 miles (12.9 km)

Hiking Time: About 4-5 hours

Elevation Gain: Section A is around 300 feet (91 meters), section B is about 150 feet (46 meters), and section C is around 50 feet (15 meters).

Established: The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, including the Billy Goat Trail, was established on January 8, 1971.

Number of Sections: Three main sections: Section A, Section B, and Section C. The combined length of the three sections is approximately 8 miles (12.9 kilometers). Section A is approximately 1.7 miles (2.8 km) long, Section B is around 1.4 miles (2.2 km) long, and Section C is about 1.6 miles (2.6 km).

Highest Point: Section A, known as the “Billy Goat A” section

Lowest Point: Near the river’s edge, where you can enjoy the scenic views and access the Potomac River.

A view of a river in a section of the Billy Goat Trail

Trail Overview: Difficulty Levels and Route Options

The Billy Goat trail is an 8-mile circuit (12.9 km) traversing through rock formations, river terrains, and rugged pathways which offer incredible views. The trail is divided into three sections; Sections A, B, and C, each with a distinct character.

Section A is the most challenging of all sections, with steep rock wall scrambles and narrow cliff drop-offs. Sections B and C are less strenuous but no less scenic, with beautiful stretches of river views, boulders, and lush forests. In addition, section C is the most accessible, with a wooden boardwalk, magnificent falls, and serene hiking trails. Be prepared to encounter wildlife like deer, foxes, snakes, and birds of prey along the trek.

Seasonal Considerations: Best Times to Hike and Weather Conditions

When planning a hike on the Billy Goat Trail, timing is essential to ensure your safety, comfort, and the best experience. The weather conditions, trail accessibility, and crowd levels are a few factors that can impact your adventure.

As avid hikers, you must consider the weather information below to make the most of your journey through the Billy Goat Trail section near Great Falls and ensure a safe trip.

A Trail Section in the Billy Goat Trail

Spring (March to May):

During spring, the temperatures in the Billy Goat Trail area start to warm up. In March, average temperatures range from around 40°F (4°C) to 57°F (14°C). By May, the temperatures increase, with averages between 52°F (11°C) and 72°F (22°C).

Spring is an excellent time to explore the Billy Goat Trail as nature awakens with vibrant colors and renewed energy. During this season, you can witness the blooming of wildflowers, lush foliage, and the flowing waters of the Potomac River.

However, it’s important to note that spring showers are common, so be prepared with waterproof gear and extra caution on potentially slippery trails.

You can check out our guide to find the appropriate hiking clothing.

Summer (June to August):

Summer in the Billy Goat Trail area is characterized by warm to hot temperatures and increased humidity. Average temperatures in June range from around 63°F (17°C) to 84°F (29°C). July and August are the warmest months, with average temperatures ranging between 69°F (21°C) and 89°F (32°C).

Summer also brings longer daylight hours, making it an attractive time to hike longer treks like the Gold Mine Loop. the trail. The lush greenery, sunny skies, and the opportunity to cool off in the refreshing waters of the Potomac River can enhance your experience.

It is important to carry sufficient water, wear sun protection, and plan your hike during the cooler parts of the day to avoid excessive heat.

Fall (September to November):

Autumn is one of the best times to visit the Billy Goat Trail. September starts with average temperatures around 66°F (19°C) and gradually cools down, with November averaging between 41°F (5°C) and 60°F (16°C).

The foliage transforms into a breathtaking tapestry of red, orange, and golden hues, creating a stunning backdrop in fall. The weather is generally mild, making it comfortable for outdoor activities. But popularity peaks during this season, so expect larger crowds, especially on weekends. Consider visiting during weekdays or early mornings to enjoy a quieter experience.

Winter (December to February):

Winters in the area can be cold, with occasional snowfall. Average temperatures in December range from around 31°F (-1°C) to 48°F (9°C). January and February are the coldest months, with averages ranging between 29°F (-2°C) and 45°F (7°C).

Winter can provide a unique and serene experience on the Billy Goat Trail. The crowds diminish significantly, offering a more secluded journey through the wilderness. The bare trees expose hidden views and if you’re lucky, you might witness frozen waterfalls along the Potomac River.

Be prepared for icy patches and potentially challenging trail conditions. Sturdy hiking footwear with good traction is essential for stability on slippery surfaces.

Check out More Weather Information on Weather.gov before embarking on the trip.

A section of the Potomac River

Recommended Gear

You should pack everything you need for a safe and enjoyable trip at Billy goat trail.

First, wear Appropriate Gear: Wearing appropriate gear is essential for your safety and comfort when tackling the trails. Here are some of the essential items to consider:

  • Wear sturdy hiking shoes: Choose footwear with excellent traction and ankle support. They provide stability on uneven surfaces and protect your feet during rock scrambling.
  • Clothing: Wear comfortable, moisture-wicking clothing suitable for outdoor activities. Dress in layers to adapt to changing weather conditions, and pack a rain jacket in case of unexpected showers.
  • Safety Equipment: Consider bringing a small backpack with essential items such as a first aid kit, a headlamp or flashlight, a whistle for emergencies, a trail map or GPS navigation device for reference, inform someone about your route and estimated return time, and stay on the designated pathways. Here are other hiking apps and tools that can help you navigate the trails efficiently.
  • Other accessories: If you plan for a strenuous hike during the summer, pack sunscreen, sunglasses, water, high-energy backpacking snacks, and a sturdy backpack. Also, remember your camera or phone to capture the breathtaking views.

Preparing for the Trail: Physical Fitness and Safety Tips

The Billy Goat Trail offers an exhilarating experience for outdoor enthusiasts, especially those who enjoy rock scrambling and rock jumping. Nonetheless, it’s crucial to adequately prepare yourself physically and prioritize safety before embarking on this adventure.

Nature Trail Sign

Here are some essential tips to consider when getting ready for the challenges of the Billy Goat Trail.

  1. Assess Your Physical Fitness: Rock scrambling on the Billy Goat Trail requires moderate to high physical fitness. It involves navigating uneven terrain, climbing over boulders, and balancing on rock surfaces. Prior to tackling the trail, assess your fitness level and consider engaging in activities that improve strength, balance, and endurance.
  2. Research and Plan Your Route: Note that there are different sections in this trail, each varying in difficulty. So, you must research and understand all the sections—A, B, and C—before selecting the most suitable route for your skill level and physical capabilities. Section A is technical & strenuous, while Section C presents the easiest rock scrambling. Plan your route accordingly, ensuring it aligns with your abilities and comfort level.
  3. Stay Hydrated and Fuelled: Proper hydration and nutrition are vital for physical activities like the Billy Goat Trail. Carry enough water and hydrate regularly during your hike. Also, pack energizing snacks such as trail mix, energy bars, or fresh fruits to maintain your energy levels throughout the trek.
  4. Be Aware of Weather Conditions: Before heading out, check the weather forecast and be prepared for changing conditions. Dress appropriately for the expected weather and avoid hiking during severe weather conditions such as thunderstorms, high winds, or extreme heat. Be aware that wet conditions can make rock surfaces slippery and more challenging to navigate, so exercise caution during and after rainfall.
  5. Do not attempt risky feats or activities before assessing the risks involved. Also, watch for wildlife that may inhabit the area, such as foxes or snakes.
  6. Follow NPS Guidelines: Great Falls Park, including the Billy Goat Trail, falls under the management of the National Park Service. So, you need to familiarize yourself with the NPS guidelines, rules, and regulations, including any temporary closures or restrictions. Respect wildlife and vegetation, and follow Leave No Trace principles to preserve the natural beauty of the monument. If you plan to go with small children or pets, take extra precautionary measures to ensure their safety.

While preparing for your visit, please be aware of closures & current conditions, weather forecasts, and review the safety tips.

Navigating the Billy Goat Trail: Maps, Markers, and Trail Etiquette

The Billy Goat Trail section near Great Falls Tavern offers an exhilarating and challenging hike for outdoor enthusiasts. As you embark on this adventure, it is essential to familiarize yourself with the trail’s navigation, markers, and proper trail etiquette.

Here’s a guide to help you navigate the Billy Goat Trail effectively and ensure a safe and enjoyable experience as you contribute to the sustainability of the Trail for all visitors.

Obtain Trail Maps:

Before setting foot on the Billy Goat Trail, it’s essential to have a reliable trail map. You can find detailed maps online or at visitor centers. These maps outline the trail’s sections, access points, and notable features, allowing you to plan your route accordingly. Familiarize yourself with the map to understand the trail’s layout and identify potential hazards or challenging areas. Here is the official Billy Goat trail page with links to all other maps.

Also, you should check the Current Trail Conditions before your trip to confirm the trail is open.

Follow Trail Markers:

While hiking the Billy Goat Trail, keep a keen eye out for trail markers. These markers, typically in painted blazes or signs, guide you along the designated path. Pay close attention to the markers to ensure you’re on the correct trail section and not venturing into unauthorized areas. Respect the trail markers and avoid altering or removing them, as they are crucial in preserving the trail’s integrity and safety.

Practice Trail Etiquette:

When hiking the Billy Goat Trail, observe trail etiquette to ensure a positive experience for everyone. Here are some key guidelines to follow:

  • Yield to Others: If you encounter backpackers, especially those moving uphill or on narrower sections, yield the right of way and step aside to let them pass safely. Be courteous and patient, allowing ample space for others to maneuver.
  • Leave No Trace: This is a trash-free park. So, respect the natural environment by practicing Leave No Trace principles. Pack out all trash, stay on designated trails, and avoid damaging or disturbing plants, rocks, or wildlife.
  • Be Mindful of Noise: Keep noise levels to a minimum to maintain the tranquility of the trail. Avoid playing loud music or engaging in disruptive activities that may disturb wildlife or other hikers seeking a peaceful outdoor experience.
  • Group Size: If hiking with a group, keep the size manageable because large groups can create congestion and potentially impact the trail’s ecosystem. If necessary, split into smaller groups and maintain a reasonable distance between them.

A section of The Billy Goat Trail

Exploring Section A: Potomac River and Rocky Terrain

Exploring Section A of the Billy Goat Trail is an energizing experience that immerses you in the captivating beauty of the Potomac River and the challenging rocky terrain. From the Parking Lot to the C&O Canal Towpath connection, each step offers new vistas, wildlife encounters, and a sense of adventure.

Starting Point: Angler’s Inn Parking Lot

Section A of the Trail begins at the Parking Lot near the Angler’s and Old Angler’s Inn. This popular starting point provides easy access to the trail offering ample parking facilities. You can stop at the visitor center to gather the necessary information or inquire about trail conditions before setting off. Anglers Inn Parking is available at Great Falls Tavern.

Scenic Views of the Potomac River

As you embark on Section A where the trail passes Hermit Island, prepare to be awestruck by the stunning vistas of the Potomac River. The trail meanders along the river’s edge, offering breathtaking views of the flowing water, rocky cliffs, and lush vegetation. Take a moment to soak in the tranquility and appreciate the natural beauty surrounding you.

Challenging Rocky Terrain

You’ll encounter a series of rock scrambles and navigational challenges that require careful footwork and balance. Embrace the adventure as you clamber over boulders, traverse narrow passages, and test your agility amidst the rugged landscape.

C&O Canal Towpath Connection

Further, section A seamlessly connects with the C&O Canal Towpath and the 2.1-mile (3.3 km) Ford Mine trail, offering opportunities for diverse hiking. The Canal, a historic pathway that follows the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, presents a contrasting setting with its tranquil waters and shaded pathways.

You can also detour and explore the towpath, discovering its rich history and enjoying a leisurely stroll amidst the charming canal scenery.

Venturing into Section B: Spectacular Views and Challenging Terrain

Section B of the Billy Goat Trail is a thrilling and scenic segment that promises breathtaking views and a taste of adventure leading to the exit trail at the Overlook Trail. It is also known for its moderately challenging terrain, including some steep rock scrambles and technical sections that require skill and agility. Hikers will have to navigate through narrow passages, climb over boulders, and negotiate uneven surfaces.

Section B offers the opportunity to embark on a loop hike, allowing hikers and their pets to explore the northern and southern sides of the Potomac River. This loop provides a diverse and well-rounded adventure like rock hopping, showcasing different landscape perspectives.

It begins at the Carderock Recreation Area, where visitors can find free parking and access the trail. This popular starting point is easily accessible and features restrooms and picnic areas. Before setting off, take a moment to appreciate the surroundings and familiarize yourself with the trail map to ensure a smooth and enjoyable trip.

As you venture deeper, be prepared to be mesmerized by the spectacular views and scenic overviews and the Potomac River. The trail winds along the river’s edge, offering vantage points that showcase the natural beauty of the water, rocky cliffs, and surrounding landscape. Take a breather at one of the scenic overlooks, soak in the serenity, and capture unforgettable photos of the awe-inspiring vistas.

Unfortunately, section B is currently closed due to erosion and trail damage as of June 2023, check for current conditions before heading out, to make sure the trail is open.

Tackling Section C: Adventurous Climbing and Breathtaking Scenery

As you embark on Section C, prepare to be captivated by the mesmerizing vistas and rugged landscapes. This section, managed by the National Park Service, offers an up-close encounter with the Potomac River’s majestic power and the beauty of a small waterfall cascading down the rocks. You’ll traverse the water’s edge, navigating through the rocky terrain with every step.

You will start at the Great Falls Tavern Visitor Center and navigate to the towpath. Follow the marked trail towards the left until you reach the log bridge, where you’ll find a trail marker with a National Park sign indicating the entrance to Section C and safety precautions. It’s essential to reach early, especially on weekends and peak seasons, to secure a safe parking lot and avoid overcrowding.

This section will also present unique challenges, including slippery rocks and uneven terrain. So, wearing hiking boots with good traction is necessary to maintain stability. In addition, avoid taking unnecessary risks, especially near the water’s edge, and be aware of potential hazards such as sudden changes in water level or swift currents.

After conquering Section C, you can explore the River Trail or the Overlook Trail, which provides different perspectives of the park’s stunning scenery. These trails offer a mix of paved paths and rugged terrain, showcasing the beauty and diversity of the area.

You can pause at strategic spots to admire the cascading waterfall, listen to the soothing sounds of rushing water, and marvel at the rugged cliffs towering above you. Capture these awe-inspiring moments with your camera, but also take the time to immerse yourself in the raw beauty of nature.

Where to Stay: Camping and Overnight Stays near Billy Goat Trail

If you’re looking to extend your stay and explore the area further, camping is an excellent option near the Trail.  Primitive Campsites are available for hikers and bikers, and Reservable Campgrounds for individuals and groups. While camping directly on the Trail itself is not permitted, there are several options for camping and overnight stays in the surrounding areas.

Here are the available options.

Great Falls Park Campgrounds:

This campground offers two campgrounds that provide a convenient base for exploring the Billy Goat Trail and its surrounding natural wonders. The park’s drive-in campground, operated by the NPS, offers tent and RV camping sites with picnic tables and fire rings. Reservations are highly recommended, especially during peak seasons, and can be made through the park’s official website.  Also, be aware of closures and current conditions, weather forecasts, and review the safety tips.

Nearby State and National Parks:

If you prefer a more rustic camping experience or all campsites at Great Falls are booked, several state and national parks nearby offer camping facilities. Here are a few options to consider:

Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park: Located adjacent to Great Falls Park, this location offers primitive camping opportunities along the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal towpath. Check the park’s regulations and guidelines for camping options and permit requirements.

Maryland Heights Campground: Situated in Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, Maryland Heights Campground is a picturesque camping spot with easy access to hiking trails and stunning views of the surrounding area. Make sure to check availability and reservation requirements in advance.

Greenbrier State Park: Just a short drive from Great Falls Park, this destination in Maryland offers campsites, picnic areas, and a variety of recreational activities. Enjoy hiking, swimming, or fishing in the picturesque lake during your stay.

Nearby Lodging Options:

If camping isn’t your preference, you can check out nearby lodging options. Consider staying in nearby towns and cities, such as Potomac, Bethesda, or Rockville, which offer a range of hotels, bed and breakfasts, and vacation rentals to suit different budgets and preferences. This option allows you to enjoy the comforts of a cozy room or a charming inn while still being in close proximity to the trail.

Remember to check availability, reservation requirements, and any specific regulations or guidelines for camping or lodging options. It’s advisable to make reservations well in advance, especially during peak seasons, to secure your spot.

For other private accommodations, check canal towns or stay in a refurbished lockhouse operated by the C&O Canal Trust.

You can also download the Recreational Guide by Milepost in pdf.

Getting There: Directions and Transportation Options

Whether arriving by air or opting for alternative transportation methods, reaching the Billy Goat Trail is accessible and convenient. So, you must plan your journey for a comfortable experience.

Nearest Airports:

  1. Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA): Situated approximately 14 miles (22.5 kilometers) from the Billy Goat Trail, DCA is the closest major airport. It serves numerous domestic and international flights, making it a convenient choice for travelers.
  2. Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI): Located around 45 miles (72.4 kilometers) north of the Trail, BWI is another airport option. It offers a wide range of domestic and international flights.

Transportation from Airports to the Park:

Once you arrive at either airport, there are several transportation options to consider:

  1. Rental Car: Renting a car provides flexibility and convenience, allowing you to explore the area at your own pace. Both airports offer multiple rental car companies, and directions to the park can be easily obtained using a GPS or navigation app. Additionally, the most convenient place to park to access the trail is the Anglers Inn parking lot available at Great Falls Tavern
  2. Ride-Sharing Services: Popular ride-sharing services operate in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. You can book a ride from the airport using their respective apps.
  3. Public Transportation: You can take the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s (WMATA) Metrorail system from Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport. Use the Blue Line to reach the Metro Center station then transfer to the Red Line, and get off at the Grosvenor-Strathmore station. From there, you can take a taxi or ride-sharing service.

Exploring the Park

You can hike to navigate the three access points after arriving. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park has a towpath that runs alongside the Trail, which can be explored by bike.

For Sections A and B of the trail, the Maryland side of the Great Falls National Park offers parking lots, restrooms, and picnic areas. The northern end of Section A is accessible from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, near Old Angler’s Inn.

Section C of the trail is best accessible from the Carderock Recreation Area, which offers ample parking, campgrounds, and picnic sites. But check the regulations before traveling and make reservations if required.

Note that parking areas are available near the trailheads. However, parking can be limited during peak times, and you should arrive early or consider carpooling with fellow visitors.


The Billy Goat Trail offers an unforgettable adventure near the great falls tavern that is both challenging and rewarding. Its rugged terrain, stunning views, and wildlife experiences leave trekkers, runners, and backpackers feeling invigorated and connected with Mother Nature.

Proper preparation and attention to safety and etiquette measures are crucial for a successful and enjoyable outing. So grab your boots and camera, and head out for an experience of a lifetime.

Discover exciting destinations, trails, and hidden gems in our National Parks Guide section.


Ralph S. is the founder of Silverlight, an avid hiker and trail runner he enjoys spending time outdoors, riding his motorcycle and swimming at the beach when he's not busy replying to customers or developing new Silverlight gear.

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